Referencing, Citations and Bibliographies

It is important to acknowledge books and other sources that you have referred to in your work. In the body of your research paper if you need to refer to a particular book, include the author’s name and date, for example, Crawford, 2011. List any other works that you have referred to at the end of your paper. This shows your Professor that you have read around your subject and included scholarly references.


• Citation: A quotation from or reference to a book or author in the text of your essay.

• References: A list of sources that have you have cited in your essay.

• Bibliography: A list of sources that you have used in researching your essay but have not been directly cited. The References and Bibliography go at the end of your essay.

Citing references in your research paper

There are many accepted ways to cite resources (journal articles, books, web pages, etc.) when writing a research paper. Usually, each professor will specify and require a specific citation style. If in doubt, check with him/her regarding which is the preferred style for each course.
The University of Evansville Libraries gives sound advice on the most common forms of referencing. They have also produced guides:

APA Citation Guide Handout

MLA Citation Guide Handout

University of Lincoln produce some excellent guides to different styles of referencing including  Harvard and APA

Useful websites:

Citing your sources

Page updated by LD, 19/01/2018

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